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1. (WO1997018919) PLANING TOOL
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PLANING TOOL
This invention relates to improvements to a rotating cutting head with general utility, but more particularly to an improved tool for use in hand-held applications for surface stripping or shaping A novel cutting insert clamping method particularly suited to high rotational speeds is described

Background of the Invention
Rotary cutters are currently used by the public for both stationary and hand portable applications such as wood planing, paint removal, animal hoof trimming and metal machining They often utilize replaceable and indexable carbide inserts for cutting Normal methods for securing cutting inserts to the rotating head include the use of center screws or other small mechanical parts These are slow to use. subject to damage or loss of small parts, and may come loose during operation endangering the operator They are also more detailed and expensive to manufacture For optimum effi-ciency many materials must be machined at extremely high rotational speeds A method for holding said inserts is needed that is secure, with minimum potential for disintegration under extreme radial loads
When mounting a solid cutting tool to a portable power unit such as an electric grinder, lateral oscillations in the rotating shaft result in an up and down motion normal to the plane of the cutting head, resulting in rough cutting action unless an isolation member is inserted between the shaft and the body of the tool
The present invention produces high clamping pressures on the installed inserts under static conditions and has mechanisms that increase the pressure under radial load The invention requires no small parts at the periphery of the tool, is easier and simpler for the operator to handle, and can be produced less expensively because fewer parts are required

Summary of the Invention
The invention relates to improvements to a disk-shaped rotating cutting head The term "disk-shaped" refers to the path generated by the members when the tool is rotating and should not be read literally as a structure having an outer rim constituting an unbroken circumference of a circle The head includes
( 1 ) A means of securing all cutting inserts by the placement of a star-shaped cutting insert holding member which is held in place via a shaft nut, such as a spanner nut commonly used on portable grinders, or other securing means such as bolts, pins or toggle locks By this method, all parts are held in place with a single. self-tightening member that eliminates small moving or threaded parts When assembled the two major body parts of the tool, which are a cutting insert holding member and cutting insert mounting structure of the planing head, fit together to form what is functionally a single unit.
(2) The radial protrusions of the star shaped member may be formed axi-ally such that the star shaped member forms a shallow bowl This may be of frustro-conical or other configuration such as a segment of a sphere The protrusions are flexible so that the bowl shape is reformed into an essentially flattened disk shape during interfitting and securing of the star shaped member to the cutting insert holding member This deformation causes the free end of the protrusions to be forced radially into the cutting insert mounting pockets during interfitting, further clamping the inserts
(3) The radial neutral axis of the radial protrusions may be shifted so that forces resulting from centripetal acceleration result in a moment, forcing the free end of the protrusion toward the cutting insert clamping pocket causing clamping forces on the insert to increase with rotation
(4) The material of the protrusions may deform outward under radial loads, further increasing the clamping forces on the inserts
(5) An optional elastomeric isolation member positioned between a shaft of a portable grinder and the assembled planing head absorbs minor lateral oscillations inherent in most portable grinder shafts and compensates for minor movements by the operator during hand-held use
(6) Optional wear-resistant skids (plunge limiters) that function like rakes on a chain-saw blade, to control and adjust the aggressiveness of the cutting action Said plunge limiters may be either round or eccentrically-shaped depending on the application, are mounted in alternating positions with the cutting inserts, and are slightK smaller in diameter than the cutting inserts, limiting the cutting depth of the rotating edges
(7) An optional wear-resistant, dome-shaped high point center rest to protrude axially at the center of the major plane of the annular shaped cutting tool (i e , at the center of rotation) to provide a resting place for the operator when hand held equip-ment is in use, thus allowing positive control of depth of cut Said center rest height is adjustable relative to the cutting edges by adding or removing washers beneath the bearing flange of the shaft nut

Brief Description of the Drawings
FIG 1 shows a three-dimensional exploded front elevation showing the relative position of all parts of the disassembled cutting tool
FIG 2 shows a three dimensional view of the assembled tool as it would be mounted on a commercially available hand held power unit FIG 3 shows a cross-sectional view of an assembled face planing head through the center of rotation
FIG 4 shows a detail view of the cutting insert mounting pocket featuring an octagonal cutting insert positioning and indexing pin
FIG 5 shows a three-dimensional front elevation of a round plunge limiter

FIG 6 shows a three dimensional front elevation of an eccentric-shaped plunge limiter
FIG 7 shows a three dimensional front elevation of a cutting insert
FIG 8 is a partial perspective view of a slot cutting embodiment of the in-vention having two interfitting disk members
FIG 9 shows a substantially frustro-conical dished second disk cutting insert clamping member having radially projecting protrusions being weighted such that the neutral axis is shifted when tightened for use
FIG 10 is a fragmentary view showing a first disk shaped member having a non-segmented axially projecting rim comprising a blind cutting insert mounting pocket
FIGS I IA and 1 IB are fragmentary side elevations of alternative constructions for the cutting insert retainer
FIG 12 is a fragmentary plan view of another alternative construction of the cutting insert retainer

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments
A typical embodiment of the cutting head is illustrated in Figs 1 through 7 FIGS 8 through 12 illustrate alternate features of the invention The disassembled face planing head is illustrated in Fig 1 The assembled face planing head is illustrated in Fig 2 The face planing head consists of a cutting insert mounting structure 1. and a cutting insert holding member 2, mounted on a power unit 3 and secured by a shaft nut 4 Cutting inserts 5 and optional plunge limiters 6 are held securely in place by the blocking action of the cutting insert holding member and indexing and positioning pins 7 These pins may have a polygonal cross section, e.g , octagonal Matching centering holes 8 in the plunge limiters and cutting-inserts are toleranced to allow a slip fit over the centering pins The plunge limiters 6 and cutting inserts 5 are preferably mounted alternately on the cutting insert mounting structure 1, although other arrangements are permissible On some embodiments of the tool plunge limiters are not necessary
Cutting insert mounting structure 1 is substantially disk-shaped and con-sists of a series of cutting insert mounting pockets 9 positioned around the outer circumference of the disk Each pocket has two opposing surfaces One surface 10 is positioned normal or at a slight angle to the plane of the disk and basically on an offset of the radial centerline of the disk The integral and stationary cutting insert indexing and positioning pin 7 is mounted perpendicular to trailing surface 10 When a cutting insert 5 or plunge limiter 6 is installed on indexing and positioning pin 7. a small portion of the diameter of the insert or limiter is exposed on the working surface of the tool Op-posing leading surface 1 1 is positioned parallel to the surface 10 but canted away at the top, forming a wedging surface to interact with an identical and opposite faces on the cutting insert holding member This wedges the inserts into place as the star member is forced closer to the cutting insert mounting structure by tightening of shaft nut 4 on power unit 3
Cutting insert holding member 2 preferably is one piece and is designed to interact with a cutting insert mounting structure 1 This allows mounted cutting inserts 5 and plunge limiters 6 to be held securely in place on their centering pins 7 when the head is assembled and secured by shaft nut 4 This is accomplished by a wedging action resulting from the communication between the angled faces 1 1 incoφorated into cutting insert mounting structure 1 and faces 12 on cutting insert holding member 2 The face 10 adjacent the cutting insert may or may not be planar, depending on the particular configuration of the insert Altematively, the cutting inserts 5 can be mounted on the leading surface 1 1. being held securely in place by the wedging or blocking surfaces of the protrusion between trailing surface 10 and a surface on the cutting insert or depth limiter
An optional chip relief groove 13 may be present to reduce unnecessary wear from chips in front of cutting inserts 5 The radial protrusions 14 on the cutting insert holding member are designed to deflect as needed dunng assembly so the position of the clamping surfaces can compensate for tolerance variations in the cutting insert mounting structure 1. cutting inserts 5, or plunge limiters 6 A relief 15 may be provided so that shaft nut 4 can be flush-mounted into the cutting insert holding member A medium durometer rubber washer 16 may be positioned between the bearing surfaces of shaft nut 4 and cutting insert holding member 2 Rubber washer 16 cooperates with an elastomeric isolation member 22 in the cutting insert mounting structure to provide mechanical isolation between power unit 3 and cutting edges
A high point center rest 17 consists of a dome-shaped axial protrusion at the center of rotation of the head, providing a positive resting point for the tool when it is in use The height of this resting point can be adjusted by adding or subtracting washers 18 from beneath the bearing surface of shaft nut 4
Cutting insert 5 may be frustro-conical in shape with 360° cutting edge 19 around its perimeter facing the direction of the cut It may have a polygonal centering hole 8 at the axis of rotation for the purpose of (a) holding the piece in place and for, (b) providing multiple independent rotational positions so that the edges can be rein-dexed when they become dull Many other cutting insert shapes are permissible
A typical hand held application might require four plunge limiters and four cutting inserts mounted on the assembled cutting head.
There are two types of plunge limiter configurations for the face planing head
( 1 ) A wear-resistant eccentric-shaped plunge limiter 20 features a consistently increasing radial dimension between point "A" and "B" (Fig 6), and octagonal centering hole 8 on the axis of rotation The amount of cutting edge exposed to the cut, and therefore the aggressiveness of the tool, is adjusted by rotating the eccentric limiter (Fig 6) around an indexing means such as octagonal cutting insert indexing and positioning pin 7
(2) A concentric disk-shaped plunge limiter 6 (Fig 5) may be used The edge exposure of the cutting inserts are adjusted by exchanging sets of concentric plunge limiters Several sets of plunge limiters can be made available Each set has a unique radial dimension and the diameter of each set increases incrementally Disk-shaped plunge limiters may have an indexing means such as octagonal centering holes 8 allowing them to be indexed around cutting insert indexing and positioning pin 7 to compensate for diameter loss as they wear during use
A wear bushing 21, toleranced to allow a slip fit between the interior diameter of the bushing and the threaded shaft of power unit 3, is positioned at the rotational centerline of the cutting- insert mounting structure Elastomeric isolation member 22 is positioned between center wear bushing 21 and the body of cutting insert mounting structure 1 The rim of cutting insert mounting structure 1 and the corresponding nm of cutting insert holding member 2 can effectively shield the edges of the cutting insert, making the tool non-aggressive and self-guarding from the top and sides
In the example heretofore described, the invention is shown as an attachment for a portable grinder, using a commercial grinder spanner nut to secure the cutting insert holding member to the tool It may also be adapted to any other rotating member, such as the spindle of a milling machine, for use with any other stationary or portable power unit using any other securing means As a further example, the cutting insert holding member is shown with a wedged face that will cause the cutting insert holding member to rotate into cutting inserts as the shaft nut is tightened In other applications, a simple, non-wedged design could be utilized that blocks the cutting insert into place
This invention should be considered to include within its scope other related configurations that accomplish similar results These include rotating cutting tools that use two interfitting and substantially disk shaped members, e g , as shown in FIG 8 Here cutting insert mounting structure la and holding member 2a have been slightly modified so that the cutters can optionally extend beyond both faces of the structure and may also extend beyond the rim.
The angle of a cutting edge may be altered for optimum performance in various materials. As an example, a substantial forward leaning position will cut some materials best and an angular variation relative to a radius of the cutting insert mounting structure may be beneficial. It should be understood that the angles of the cutting insert clamping surfaces would need to be adjusted accordingly
Another important structural variation is shown in FIG 9 Here the cutting insert holding member 32, 32' has been modified so that the under surface 34 is slightly dished The upper surface 36 may be machined correspondingly so that the thickness of the radial protrusions 14 remains substantially uniform However, surface 36 may have features as shown in FIGS. 1 1 A and 1 IB to allow improved clearance or to alter the radial deformation The exact configuration of the lower surface 34 is not of critical importance It has been found convenient to make it frustro-conical from ease of machining but other configurations, e.g., a surface corresponding to a segment of a sphere, are equally suitable. Hinge areas 38 are preferably provided on the radial protrusions and function as will now be explained. When the cutting insert holding member has been placed in position over the lower member it has the configuration shown in the dashed lines of FIG 9. However, when the retaining nut 4 is tightened to position 4' to force the upper member down to jam the cutting inserts into place, the radial protrusions 14 are forced not only down but radially as well by a distance shown by 24 Hinge members 38 may be formed by decreasing the cross section of the radial protrusions One way of doing this is by machining appropriate slots in the upper surface 36 of the radial protrusions or by otherwise reducing their cross sectional area When retaining nut 4 is tightened to its operating position 4' the member 32 will be essentially flattened, as is shown by the solid lines of the figure Alternatively, the protrusions on the second member may be made of an appropriate material such as spring steel that would not require a discreetly located hinge area. The protrusion may be flat or have an arcuate shape for improved axial and radial spring properties.
The means for positioning and indexing cutting inserts or plunge limiters is not limited to a center pin 7 Alternatively, a formed pocket 26 may be used to hold the cutter insert 5', as is shown in FIG. 10. Here cutting insert mounting pockets 26 are formed into blind pockets 9a by an axially projecting rim 38 The distal surfaces, such as leading surface 12a of radial protrusion 14 may be modified as necessary to achieve the fit required. A cutting insert clamping member, such as is shown in FIG 9, may be advantageously used with this construction. Using a clamping member of this type, the axial deflection causes the free ends of the radial protrusions to move tightly against the -7-corresponding surfaces of the insert mounting pocket 9a and cutting insert 5' Such radial movement causes increased wedging of the insert. Radial loads from centripetal acceleration may further deform the material of the protrusions, further increasing radial clamping forces on the inserts
An alternative structure of the second member is shown in FIG MA This is formed with a central base member 40 to which are attached separate protrusions 42 by hinge pins 44 or an equivalent hinging mechanism The protrusions are biased downward by strong springs 46. The proximal ends of the springs are held in place by a retainer disk 48. As shaft nut 4 is tightened on power unit shaft 3 the protrusions are deflected radially to effect their strong wedging action on the cutting inserts The hinge line would normally be located parallel to the plane of first member 1 and peφendicular to the centerline of the protrusion For some puφoses the hinge line may be canted up to as much as 45° although 10° to 15° would be more typical.
Another hinge construction for the protrusions is shown in FIG 1 1B Rather than using a hinge pin, the protrusion 42' has a hooked end 43 that rests on a pivot or fulcrum point 45 on base member 40
While the protrusions 14 of FIGS 1 and 2 are shown lying along radial lines, this is not absolutely essential As is shown in FIG. 12 the center line protrusions 50 are displaced from but lie parallel to a radial line. The displacement may either be leading or lagging a true radial line. The term "radial protrusion" should be read with sufficient breadth to encompass protrusions that are displaced as just described
The invention comprises structures that contribute to powerful clamping pressures on the cutting inserts under static conditions that increase with radial loads resulting from centripetal acceleration The weight distribution of the radially extending protrusions results in a shift in the neutral axis such that radial centrifugal forces acting on the protrusion cause a moment, forcing the free end of the protrusion toward the first disk shaped member increasing clamping forces on the cutting insert 5.
An elastomeric isolation member may be used to allow for self leveling of the tool. This is useful for successful adaptation of a non-flexible machine head to a hand-held application. A similar effect could be accomplished by manufacturing the cutting insert mounting structure and holding member from an elastomeric material without a separate bushing, or by the use of a metallic spring or mechanical articulating coupling instead of the elastomeric member shown
To gain certain manufacturing benefits, designing the first or second mem-bers in one or more component pieces may be a preferred method of construction Either the first or second members may be manufactured as two or more interfitted components. For example, it may be desirable to machine the axially projecting rim from tubular material and join it to the body of the cutting head in any known manner to reduce the amount of machining necessary Functionally, the members would still perform as unitary pieces.
It will be understood that many variations are possible in construction of the tool that have not been shown or described These should be considered to fall within the spirit and scope of the invention if encompassed within the following claims