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1. (WO2012147045) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING ENERGY BY NUCLEAR REACTIONS OF HYDROGEN ADSORBED BY ORBITAL CAPTURE ON A NANOCRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF A METAL
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CLAIMS

A method to obtain energy by nuclear reactions between hydrogen (31) and a transition metal (19), said method including the steps of:

prearranging (1 10) a primary material (19) comprising a predetermined amount of cluster nanostructures (21) having a number of atoms (38) of said transition metal (19) lower than a predetermined number of atoms;

keeping said hydrogen (31) in contact with said clusters (21);

heating (130) said primary material (19) at an initial process temperature (T-i) higher than a predetermined critical temperature;

dissociation of H2 molecules of said hydrogen (31) and formation of H- ions (35) as a consequence of said step of heating;

impulsively acting (140) on said primary material (19);

orbital capture (150) of said H- ions (35) by said cluster nanostructures (21) as a consequence of said step (140) of impulsively acting;

capture (151) of said H- ions (35) by said atoms (38) of said clusters (21 ), generating a thermal power as a primary reaction heat (Qi);

removing (160) said thermal power, maintaining the temperature of the primary material (19) above said critical temperature,

characterised in that

it provides a step (1 15) of prearranging an amount of a secondary material (28) that faces said primary material (19) and within a predetermined maximum distance (L) from said primary material (19), said secondary material (28) arranged to interact with protons (35"') emitted from said primary material (19) by energy-releasing proton-dependent nuclear reactions that occur with a release of further thermal power in the form of a secondary reaction heat (Q2), such that said step of removing (160) comprises said generated thermal power as said primary reaction heat (Qi) and said secondary reaction heat (Q2).

A method according to claim 1 , wherein said secondary material (28) comprises Lithium, in particular said Lithium comprising predetermined fractions of 6Li and 7Li isotopes.

3. A method according to claim 1 , wherein said secondary material (28) comprises Boron, in particular Boron comprising predetermined fractions of 10B and 11B isotopes.

4. A method according to claim 1 , wherein said secondary material (28) is a transition metal.

5. A method according to claim 1 , wherein said secondary material (28) is selected from the group consisting of: 232Th, 236U, 239U, 239Pu.

6. A method according to claim 1 , wherein a step is provided of adjusting (170) the generated thermal power, comprising a step of changing said amount of said secondary material (28) that faces said primary material

(19) and is arranged within said predetermined maximum distance (L) and is therefore exposed to said protons (35"') emitted from said primary material (19).

7. A method according to claim 1 , wherein said step of changing said amount of secondary material (28) exposed to said emitted protons (35"') comprises a step of moving an adjustment body (30,70) movable between a first position (40) and a second position (40'), corresponding to a maximum exposition and to a minimum exposition of said secondary material (28) on said primary material (19), respectively.

8. An energy generator (50) by nuclear reactions between hydrogen (31) and a transition metal, said generator (50) comprising:

an active core (18) that include a predetermined amount of a primary material (19) comprising cluster nanostructures (21) having a number of atoms (38) of said transition metal lower than a predetermined maximum number of atoms;

- a generation chamber (53) containing said active core (18) and arranged to contain said hydrogen (31) to provide a contact of said hydrogen (31) with said clusters (21);

- a heating means for heating said active core (18) in said generation chamber (53) up to an initial process temperature (ΤΊ) higher than a predetermined critical temperature, said process initial temperature suitable for causing a dissociation of H2 molecules of said hydrogen (31) and a formation of H- ions (35);

- a trigger means (61 ,62,67) for creating an impulsive action (140) on said active core (18), said impulsively action (140) suitable for causing an orbital capture ( 50) of said H" ions (35) by said cluster crystalline structure , and then a step of capture (151) of said H- ions (35) by said atoms (38) of said clusters (21), thus generating a primary reaction heat (Qi);

- a heat removal means (54) for removing a thermal power from said generation chamber (53) and for maintaining the temperature of said active core (18) above said critical temperature while said thermal power is removed,

characterised in that it comprises, within a predetermined maximum distance (L) from said primary material (19), an amount of a secondary material (28) arranged to interact with protons of energy higher than a predetermined energy threshold, such that protons emitted by said orbital capture (150) of said H- ions (35) causes nuclear secondary energy-releasing reactions that occur with a release of a secondary reaction heat (Q2), and the heat removal means (54) can remove a thermal power that comprises said primary reaction heat (Qi) and said secondary reaction heat (Q2).

An energy generator (50) according to claim 8, wherein said secondary material (28), which is arranged to capture and to engage with said emitted protons (35"'), is selected from the group consisting of: Lithium, Boron and a transition metal.

An energy generator (50) according to claim 8, that is provided with a secondary element, i.e. with a solid body that includes said secondary material, wherein said secondary element comprises a metal in an amorphous state, in particular an alloy of a plurality of metals in the amorphous state, comprising:

- a structural metal;

- said secondary material, selected from the group consisting of: Boron and Lithium.

11. An energy generator (50) according to claim 10, wherein said structural metal is selected from the group consisting of: iron, Nickel, a combination of Fe and Ni.

12. An energy generator (50) according to claim 10, wherein said secondary element is obtained by the steps of:

prearranging an amount of said metal in the molten state, at a predetermined temperature and according to a prefixed shape;

cooling said molten metal into said shape with a cooling speed high enough such that said molten metal hardens maintaining the amorphous state.

13. An energy generator (50) according to claim 12, wherein said step of prearranging comprises a step of injection moulding.

14. An energy generator (50) according to claim 8, wherein said secondary element (66) form a portion of a containing element (55) of said active core (18).

15. An energy generator (50) according to claim 14, wherein said containing element (55) comprises an alloy of a transition metal and of said secondary material.

16. An energy generator according to claim 8, wherein said active core (18) comprises a plurality of substantially plane primary elements (17) that are at least in part made of said primary material (19), and a plurality of substantially plane secondary elements (32) is provided that are at least in part made of said secondary material (28), wherein said primary elements (17) and said secondary elements (32) are advantageously arranged such that each primary element (17) interposes between two secondary elements (32), and that each secondary element (32) interposes between two primary elements (17).

17. An energy generator according to claim 16, wherein said substantially plane primary elements comprise primary laminas (17) that are at least in part made of said primary material (19).

18. An energy generator according to claim 16, wherein said substantially plane secondary elements comprise secondary laminas (32) that are at least in part made of said secondary material (28).

19. An energy generator according to claim 16, wherein said primary elements (17) and/or said secondary elements (32) comprise a support (22) and a coating of said support (22), respectively made of said primary material (19) or of said secondary material (28).

20. An energy generator according to claim 8, comprising an adjustment means for adjusting the generated heat, said adjustment means comprising a means for changing said amount of said secondary material

(28) that faces said primary material (19) and that is arranged within said predetermined maximum distance (L).

21. An energy generator according to claim 20, wherein said adjustment means comprises:

- an adjustment body (30,70);

a means for displacing said adjustment body (30,70) within said generation chamber (53) with respect to said primary material (19) between a first position (40) and a second position (40') corresponding to a maximum exposition and to a minimum exposition of said secondary material (28) on said primary material (19) , respectively,

said adjustment body (30,70) being selected from the group consisting of: a shield body (70) arranged between said primary material (19) and said secondary material (28);

a support body (30) of said secondary material (28) arranged near said primary material (19).

22. An energy generator according to claim 20, wherein said primary material (19) is arranged between said active core (18) and a containing element (55) that contains said primary active core (18), or arranged between adjacent primary elements (17) of said active core (18).

23. An energy generator according to claims 16 and 20, wherein said adjustment body (30,70) comprises a plurality of substantially plane adjustment elements (32,47) integral to one another, which are arranged such that each adjustment element (32,47) slidingly interposes between two primary elements (17) or between a primary element (17) and a secondary element (32) according to whether said adjustment body (30,70) is a support body (30) or is a shield body (70), and said means for displacing said adjustment body (30,70) is adapted to provide a relative slide movement (39,79) between said adjustment elements (32,47) and said primary elements (17) and/or secondary elements (32) reciprocally interposed to each other, according to a common plane parallel to both said substantially plane primary elements (17) and/or said substantially plane secondary elements (32) and to said substantially plane adjustment elements (32,47), in order to integrally adjust respective surface portions (18') of each secondary element (32) facing said primary elements (17).

An energy generator according to claim 23, wherein said adjustment means comprises a means selected from the group consisting of:

a relative rotation means of said plurality of adjustment elements (17) and of said plurality of primary and/or secondary elements (32) about a rotation axis of said generator (50);

- a relative translation means of said plurality of adjustment elements (32,47) and of said plurality of primary elements (17) and/or secondary (32) according to a direction of said common plane of said adjustment elements (32,47) and of said primary elements (17) and/or secondary elements (32).